Chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) are the key mature analytical techniques in modern food analysis. Here mature refers to reliable, with proven performance and good characteristics. Mature should in no way be interpreted as dull, with no new developments! The way we perform MS today for example is very different from 10 to 15 years ago. In the past the mass spectrometer could only be used by true experts, but nowadays it is a very powerful detector in the hands of those properly trained. In chromatography we have also seen the introduction and rapid market acceptance of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC), comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography, and advanced methods for sample preparation. "Direct analysis in real time" (DART), -omics techniques, multi-residue methods, accurate mass MS, and many other methods have found rapid acceptance. It is true that the area of food analysis is not always the first area to develop novel methods, but we are masters in adopting and adapting methods from, for example, the pharmaceutical and biomedical fields. In the future we will continue the inclusion of new techniques into our analytical toolbox. The analysis of natural toxins, for example, requires new methods. In addition, the trend towards less processing, meaning that fewer possible contaminants are removed from products, will have consequences for our work. We are also confronted with regulations that are becoming ever more stringent. The pressure of time is an additional complicating factor. With the food area highly dynamic, we need to come up with solutions now, not in a couple of years.
The world of food analysis is an expanding one. Knowledge from the past remains relevant, while simultaneously new ideas and understanding need to be developed. In this special supplement for LCGC Europe, key state-of-the art areas in food analysis are discussed and the applicability of these novel developments are demonstrated.In the first article the current status of carbohydrate analysis is reviewed. The impact of recent developments on the way classical sugar analysis is performed is discussed and novel strategies for the identification of polysaccharides are described.
Scientists from the RIKILT Institute for Food Safety discuss the trend of miniaturization and multi-compound detection. Smaller particles allow faster separations and reduced flow rates improve the compatibility of liquid phase separation techniques with MS. High-resolution MS allows us to distinguish compounds that are not chromatographically resolved.
With all the novel methods being developed, the toolbox of the food analyst is ever expanding and the selection of the most appropriate method becomes increasingly difficult. Scientists from my team at Unilever have tackled this issue by moving towards more generic methods. Target analysis of several groups of compounds in edible oils and fats can now be done using one, tuneable method.
Flavour, and especially off-flavour analysis, is an important research field in food analysis. It requires the joint deployment of an array of sensorial and analytical methods, as is described in a contribution by Kathy Ridgway.
Finally, we focus on complex vegetable sample analysis. For the non-volatile species, comprehensive LC×LC–MS is a good choice, as is discussed in a contribution from scientists at the University of Messina, Italy.
We hope the short articles and reviews presented here provide the reader with more background information and provide ideas for the challenging questions of today and the many new questions that will arise in the future.
Hans-Gerd Janssen, Unilever Research and Development, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.