The Application Notebook September 2017

September 2017 | Volume 30, Issue 3
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a worldwide contamination problem. Structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), these compounds are long-lived in the environment and can bioaccumulate throughout the food chain. The health hazards of these chemicals have attracted increasing scrutiny and, as such, a great deal of research and regulations have been implemented to manage and control them.
By LCGC Editors
Perfluorinated alkyl acids are man-made fluorochemicals used as surface-active agents in the manufacture of a variety of products, such as firefighting foams, coating additives, textiles, and cleaning products. They have been detected in the environment globally and are used in very large quantities around the world. These fluorochemicals are extremely persistent and resistant to typical environmental degradation processes. As a result, they are widely distributed across the higher trophic levels and are found in soil, air, groundwater, municipal refuse, and landfill leachates. The toxicity, mobility, and bioaccumulation potential of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in particular, pose potential adverse effects for the environment and human health.
“Click” chemistry is a class of efficient and selective reactions that is characterized by quantitative yields, tolerance to a broad range of functional groups, facile experimental setup, and minimal synthetic workup. This class of reactions combines particularly well with controlled radical polymerization methods, such as atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and the two techniques have been prolifically employed for the synthesis of a wide variety of novel polymeric materials, including (multi) block copolymers, stars, brushes, and gels. This note describes the analysis of multisegmented block copolymers prepared by click-coupling of block copolymers synthesized by ATRP.
Pharmaceutical/Drug Discovery
By LCGC Editors
Liposomes are often used as nanocarriers to encapsulate in their cores hydrophobic or highly toxic drugs, and deliver these drugs safely to target tissue. During drug nanocarrier research and development as well as production quality control, it is of great importance to monitor liposome size distributions accurately while also verifying drug encapsulation. FFF-MALS-DLS, consisting of field-flow fractionation (FFF) combined with multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS), is a powerful tool for characterizing the size, concentration, and structure of large nanoparticle ensembles.
This application note describes a combined approach of analytical method development and method transfer by direct emulation of different target HPLC systems.
By LCGC Editors
Modern therapeutic antibody formats, such as bispecific antibodies (bsAbs), are on the rise. Bispecific antibodies are artificial proteins that recognize two different epitopes and can simultaneously bind to two different types of antigen. They can be used to redirect T cells to tumour cells, block two different signalling pathways simultaneously, dually target different disease mediators, and deliver payloads to targeted sites.
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