Gradient Elution, Part VI: Ghost Peaks - - Chromatography Online
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Gradient Elution, Part VI: Ghost Peaks
 Aug 1, 2013 By: John Dolan LCGC North America Volume 31, Issue 8, pp. 604-611

Where do all those extra peaks come from?

This is the final installment in the recent series of "LC Troubleshooting" discussions on gradient elution (1–6). In the last two columns, we've considered problems related to gradients when we looked at dwell volume (5) and drift (6). This month, we'll look at what many users consider the nemesis of gradient elution — ghost peaks. Also referred to as artifact peaks, ghost peaks occur in gradients even when no sample is injected. That is, if you run the gradient program without cycling the sample injection valve, peaks often appear in the chromatogram. We'll look at two examples of such problems that have been resurrected from the archives of "LC Troubleshooting."

A Long Time Coming

I often refer to the "Rule of Three" as a guide to help us estimate what happens to retention time when we change the mobile-phase concentration in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC). The rule of three states that the retention factor, k, changes by approximately threefold for each 10% change in the organic solvent concentration (%B, usually acetonitrile or methanol). So, for example, if we had an analyte in our sample that normally was retained with k = 5 under isocratic conditions of 50% B, at 40% B, we would expect k ≈ 3 × 5 = 15. Another 10% change to 30% B would yield k ≈ 3 × 15 = 45. Similarly, 20% B would give k ≈ 135. We can convert this to retention time from the formula for k:

where t R is the retention time and t 0 is the column dead time (retention time of the solvent front). Rearrange equation 1 to solve for the retention time:

For discussion purposes, let's assume we're using a 150 mm × 4.6 mm column operated at 2 mL/min. This will generate t 0 ≈ 0.75 min. Now we can calculate retention times for each of our conditions. For k = 5, t R = 4.5 min; for k = 15, t R = 12 min; for k = 45, t R ≈ 35 min; and for k = 135, t R ≈ 102 min. So, you can see that by the time we reduce the mobile-phase concentration to 30% less than the starting concentration, at t R = 102 min the peak is so strongly retained, it is unlikely that we'll wait around for it to come off the column.

We've been looking at isocratic retention, but the same process will occur during gradient elution. Because many gradients start at very weak mobile-phase conditions (small %B), we would expect that many analytes would be very strongly retained under such conditions. This is the basis of on-column compression, a process whereby the sample becomes concentrated or held in a very narrow band at the inlet of the column when it is injected under very weak mobile phase conditions or is injected in a very weak injection solvent. Sometimes it is possible to inject a large-volume sample — for example, 5–10 mL — in a very weak injection solvent, such as water, and have the same chromatographic result as if we injected a much higher concentration of the sample in a few microliters. This can be a practical way to preconcentrate water-based samples when gradient elution is used.

So, we can see that on-column concentration can be a very useful analytical tool if we have very dilute samples. However, the LC column is not very clever — it can't tell the difference between peaks that originated from an intentionally injected sample and those that result from preconcentrating impurities from the starting, weak mobile phase. Peaks originating from contaminants in the weak component of the mobile phase (the A-solvent, generally water or buffer) are the most common source of ghost peaks in gradient elution.

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LCGC COLUMNISTS 2013

 Column Watch | Ronald E. Majors: LCGC Columnist Ron Majors, established authority on new column technologies, keeps readers up-to-date with new sample preparation trends in all branches of chromatography and reviews developments in existing technology lines. LATEST: Application of Existing Sample Preparation Technologies to New Areas History of Chromatography | Industry Veterans: With each installment of this column, a different industry veteran covers an aspect of the evolution and continued development of the science of chromatography, from its birth to its eventual growth into the high-powered industry we see today.LATEST: Professor Barry L. Karger: Scientist, Mentor, and Innovator MS — The Practical Art | Kate Yu: Kate Yu is the editor of 'MS-The Practical Art' bringing her expertise in the field of mass spectrometry and hyphenated techniques to the pages of LCGC. In this column she examines the mass spectrometric side of coupled liquid and gas-phase systems. Troubleshooting-style articles provide readers with invaluable advice for getting the most from their mass spectrometers. LC Troubleshooting | John Dolan: LC Troubleshooting sets about making HPLC methods easier to master. By covering the basics of liquid chromatography separations and instrumentation, John Dolan, Vice President of LC Resources and world renowned expert on HPLC, is able to highlight common problems and provide remedies for them. LATEST: What's the Problem with the LLOQ — A Case Study

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