This month's "LC Troubleshooting" looks at two readersubmitted questions regarding method calibration.
One of the parts of being a column editor for LCGC that I enjoy is interacting with readers, primarily by email. I try to answer each reader's question promptly. Some questions
have a wider interest to the liquid chromatography (LC) community, so I occasionally pick a question or two to use as the
centerpiece of my "LC Troubleshooting" columns. Reader questions also help me keep my finger on the pulse of reader interests
so that I can pick topics that will be useful to a wide variety of reader needs. This month I've picked two topics related
to method calibration that came in recent email messages. If you would like to submit a question, contact me via my email
address listed at the end of this article.
What's the Matter with the Calibrators?
Question: I am running a method to verify that the product we produce contains 100±5% of the label claim of the active ingredient.
The method has worked well for our product containing 50 mg of active ingredient. We are just introducing a lower potency
product that contains 28 mg of the active ingredient, and I can't get the product to pass the specifications. I weighed out
28 mg of reference standard to check the method and this reference standard will not pass either.
Table I: Calibration data

My method calls for making two weighings of ~50 mg of my reference standard and making two standard solutions. Six replicate
injections of the first solution (STD1) are made and two of the second (STD2). The response factor is calculated as the average
area of the six injections divided by the weight of the standard. System suitability requires that all injections are within
±2% of the nominal amount. I have shown the results of a typical test in Table I. When I make a lower concentration of reference
standard by weighing 28 mg, repeating the injections, and checking the concentration using the response factor, however, I
am unable to get the 28 mg standards to pass system suitability. What am I doing wrong? Additionally, the method calls for
the two weighings, but after the initial check of the second standard (n = 2), it is not used again. It always seems to agree with the first standard, so why is this required?
Answer: As is my usual practice when reviewing data, I first examine it to see if I can establish any indicators of data quality.
One easy way to do this is to look at the repeatability. At the bottom of Table I I've shown the average, standard deviation,
and percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the n = 6 replicate injection sets (as is usual for these discussions, I've rounded the numbers for display convenience). You can
see that the 50mg set comes in at 0.12% RSD and the 28mg set at 0.23%. Both of these are reasonable and show that the performance
of LC system, especially the autosampler and data system, is adequately reproducible. In our laboratory, we typically see
≤0.3% RSD for six 10µL injections, and these data meet those criteria.
Table II: Comparison of results with two calibration methods

My next step is to examine the individual and pooled results to see if I notice any patterns. I've reorganized the data slightly
in Table II, where the first column of data lists the weighed amounts and the second column lists the amount of compound calculated
from the area for each injection using the response factor (RF= 357, bottom of Table I) based on the weight divided by the
average response for the 50 mg, n = 6 sample. You can see that all of the individual 50 mg injections as well as their averages are within the ±2% limit (50.2
mg × 2% = 1.0 mg), so all is well there. However, most of the 28mg injections and all the averages are outside the limits
(28 mg × 2% = 0.56 mg). Because the averages for both 28mg samples agree (102.1% and 102.6%), it is unlikely to be a weighing
error (more on the use of duplicate weighings later).
So, what's going wrong here? I suspect that it is a problem with the calibration procedure. This method uses what we call
singlepoint calibration, where a reference standard is made at one concentration and a response factor is determined based on the peak response (area)
and the standard concentration. Then sample concentrations are calculated by dividing the sample peak area by the response
factor. This is a simple and straightforward technique, but it assumes that the calibration plot goes through zero (x = 0, y = 0). The response factor is simply the slope of the calibration line, and to establish the calibration line, you need two
points. One point is the response of the standard and the other is assumed to be zero — that is, zero response for zero concentration
— a very logical assumption. However, this assumption must be demonstrated during method validation to justify singlepoint
calibration.
To illustrate the problem, I've assumed that all the weighings at the 50mg and 28mg levels are accurate as shown in Table
I. By pooling all 16 injections for both concentrations, we can perform a linear regression on the data set. In this case,
we get a formula for the calibration curve of y = 346x + 530, with r^{2}= 0.9999. On the other hand, if we only use the 50mg points and force the origin through zero, we get y = 357x, with r^{2}= 1.0000. It is simple to determine which formula is appropriate for the data set, as was discussed in an earlier "LC Troubleshooting"
column (1). In the regression data report for the full data set, there is a value called "standard error of y" (SE_{y}), which can be thought of as the normal error, or uncertainty around the value of y when x = 0. If the reported value of y at x = 0 is less than the standard error of y, the curve can be forced through zero, and in the present case, this would justify a singlepoint calibration. If the reported
value is greater than the standard error of y, forcing the curve through 0,0 is not justified, and a multipoint calibration is required. In the present case SE_{y} = 34. In other words, if the calibration line crosses the y axis at 0 ±34, it is within 1 standard deviation of zero and not statistically different from zero, so the use of 0,0 as
a calibration point is reasonable. Here, though, the calibration curve y = 346x + 530 tells us that if x = 0, y = 530, which is more than 10 times larger than SE_{y}, so a singlepoint calibration is not justified.
To illustrate how much better the data appear when we do a multipoint calibration, I have selected just the second weighings
of the 50.2mg and 28mg data and used the n = 2 injections of each (four total injections) to generate the calibration curve (y = 342x + 694, r^{2} = 1.0000). I've used this calibration to backcalculate the concentration of each injection, as shown in the righthand column
of Table II. You can see that the 50mg data points are about the same as for the responsefactor approach, but the 28mg
points all fit within approximately 0.5% of the target values. This is definitely a better choice for calibration of the current
method.
Figure 1: Hypothetical calibration plots. The dashed line represents 50mg reference standard and calibration line assumed
to pass through the origin (0,0). The solid line represents calibration with 50 and 28mg reference standards. The open circle
shows error in apparent concentration when improper calibration plot is used. See text for details.

So, why was the problem not noticed with the 50mg product, whereas it shows up with the 28mg one? I've sketched a greatly
exaggerated calibration plot in Figure 1 with arbitrary slopes to illustrate the problem. With the singlepoint curve, we
have a real data point at 50 mg and an assumed one through the origin that generates the dashed line. By definition, the 50mg
point will be on the line. Any concentration of product that gives a response within ±5% of the 50 mg response will pass the
100±5% specification. Even with the wrong slope of the calibration line, some product concentration variations will pass.
I calculate that a product that varied by as much as ±2.5% of real concentration would still appear to fit the ±5% allowance
based on the singlepoint curve. So, if the manufacturing process generated very accurate concentrations (±2.5%), the product
would pass specifications. However, product that deviated more than ±2.5% would appear to exceed the ±5% limits. The net result
of this condition would be that all "passing" product would be within the specifications and therefore safe to use, but some
product that was actually within the ±5% specification would appear to fail and would be scrapped or reworked, adding expense
to the manufacturing process.
When we move to the 28mg product, however, the story changes. I've drawn the solid curve in Figure 1 to represent the true
calibration curve when both the 50 and 28mg points are used to generate the plot (again, the difference in slopes is exaggerated
for illustration). The 28mg point is shown on this solid line as a solid dot. However, if this same response is plotted on
the singlepoint curve (dashed line), the point is moved to the right (open circle) to fit the curve and gives a reported
value that is higher than it should be. This is exactly what we see with the data of Tables I and II when the responsefactor
(singlepoint) approach is taken — the 28mg values are larger than expected by a little more than 2% (the drawing of Figure
1 greatly exaggerates the difference). With this understanding of the problem, it is not at all surprising that the 28mg
points all fail with the singlepoint calibration at 50 mg. If another singlepoint calibration curve were made using 28mg
calibrators, those calibrators would be expected to pass system suitability, and it is likely that at least some of the product
batches would also pass specifications for the same reason that the 50mg ones did with a 50mg calibration. That is, a singlepoint
calibration can appear to work properly if the test values are close to the calibration point, even if the wrong calibration
scheme is used.
I don't know the history of the method or if the singlepoint calibration was ever validated properly. In any event, when
a method is transferred as a pharmacopeial method or an internally developed method, it is always wise to make several concentrations
of reference standards over the range of zero to the proposed singlepoint concentration (and likely to 25–50% higher than
the singlepoint value). Make a calibration curve using all the data points and compare it to a singlepoint calibration.
If they give the same results, easily checked by testing whether the calibration curve can be forced through zero or not,
then a singlepoint calibration is justified.
The final part of the reader's question pertained to the requirement for making two equal weighings of the reference standard
and comparing the response of these. Technically, if you are positive that your weighings are always correct, this practice
is a waste of time. However, there is a normal amount of uncertainty (error) in the laboratory, and sometimes we just make
a mistake. This is the reason for making duplicate weighings — to doublecheck that a mistake was not made. As a consumer,
I am certainly more comfortable depending on a certain dose of a pharmaceutical product if I know the concentration has been
doublechecked. This is the same reason that duplicate preparations of sample often are called for in an analysis. In some
methods, both of the standards are used for calibration. For example, one might have a sequence of STD1, STD2, SPL1a, SPL1a,
SPL1b, SPL1b, STD1, STD2, where STD1 and STD2 are the two reference standards, and sample 1 (SPL1) is prepared in duplicate
(SPL1a and SPL1b) and each preparation is injected twice. Perhaps all four bracketing standards are averaged to get the response
factor for that set of samples. The design of the injection sequence, calibration method, and number of replicates will depend
on the analytical method, laboratory policy, and regulatory requirements.