The application of gas chromatography (GC) combined with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC–APCI-MS)
and with supersonic molecular beam ionization mass spectrometry (GC–SMB-MS) is described in this article. These ionization
modes offer complementary information that helps to unravel the complexity of extracts from natural products. They are also
compatible with high-temperature GC, which extends the GC application range to higher-molecular-weight apolar solutes. Additionally,
soft ionization can be very useful for the characterization of polar fractions analysed by GC after derivatization (silylation).
Derivatized sugars, organic acids, and amino acids show strong fragmentation in electron ionization–mass spectrometry (EI–MS)
with non-characteristic fragment ions, whereas GC–APCI-MS and GC–SMB-MS offer easier feature extraction and compound identification.
Figure 1: Schematic overview of the four classes of natural product constituents.
Natural products contain a broad range of organic molecules, including low- to high-molecular-weight compounds and apolar
to polar solutes. Several analytical methods are therefore required to unravel the complexity, characterize the product, and
identify important constituents of natural products. In a very schematic way, natural product constituents can be divided
into four classes based on their molecular weight and polarity (Figure 1). Classical gas chromatography–mass spectrometry
(GC–MS) with electron ionization (EI) is typically applied for the analysis of low-molecular-weight, apolar (and thus relatively
volatile) solutes, resulting in high sensitivity and library searchable spectra. For apolar high boiling solutes, such as
lipids, high-temperature GC or liquid chromatography (LC) are used. Polar constituents, such as sugars and amino acids, can
also be analysed using LC or GC but require derivatization. Finally, the polar high-molecular-weight constituents such as
proteins and oligosaccharides are typically analysed by LC (including size-exclusion chromatography [SEC]) or by electrophoretic
The borders between the four quadrants in Figure 1 should not be considered as "solid," but rather as "transition zones".
Since GC is characterized by high resolving power, research in GC–MS is continuously exploring ways to extend the applicability
from the low-molecular-weight apolar zone — the "classical" GC–MS application area — into the higher molecular weight zone
and the more polar fraction. Three main obstacles are encountered:
Firstly, in the apolar fraction, compounds such as waxes and alcohols show strong fragmentation, and no molecular ion is detected
in GC–EI-MS making unequivocal identification difficult. Secondly, for the elution of high-molecular-weight compounds, high-temperature
GC conditions, such as the selection of a column with a high phase ratio (wide bore + thin film), high column flows (> 5 mL/min),
and very high temperatures, are needed. These conditions are not compatible with classical benchtop MS systems. Finally, the
polar fraction of natural products is important. While this fraction can be analysed by GC after derivatization (for example,
using the metabolomic method developed by Fiehn [1,2], involving oximation and silylation), identification of derivatized
sugars, organic acids, and amino acids is difficult because of strong fragmentation in electron ionization.
For these reasons, soft ionization techniques combined with MS can offer complementary information. The best known are (positive
ion or negative ion) chemical ionization (3) and, more recently, single photon ionization (4). In this article two other alternatives
for GC soft ionization MS were evaluated: GC hyphenated to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) on a high resolution
time-of-flight (TOF) MS system (5) and GC combined via a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) interface and a single-quadrupole
MS system (GC–SMB-MS) (6). These ionization modes are also compatible with higher capillary column flows that are often used
in high temperature GC, and are therefore quite interesting to extend the range of "GC-amenable" solutes to higher molecular
weight solutes, such as long chain alcohols and lipids. The aim of this article was not to provide a detailed technical description
of these ionization modes, but rather to illustrate their application in natural product research. Both hyphenated methods
were evaluated using tobacco leaf extracts (both apolar and polar extracts) as an example, but the GC–APCI–TOF-MS and GC–SMB-MS
methodology can be extended to a wide range of applications in natural products, including tea, herbal medicines, plant extracts
for cosmetics, and more.
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LCGC COLUMNISTS 2013
Column Watch | Ronald E. Majors: LCGC Columnist Ron Majors, established authority on new column technologies, keeps readers up-to-date with new sample preparation trends in all branches of chromatography and reviews developments in existing technology lines.
History of Chromatography | Industry Veterans: With each installment of this column, a different industry veteran covers an aspect of the evolution and continued development of the science of chromatography, from its birth to its eventual growth into the high-powered industry we see today.
MS — The Practical Art | Kate Yu:
Kate Yu is the editor of 'MS-The Practical Art' bringing her expertise in the field of mass spectrometry and hyphenated techniques to the pages of LCGC. In this column she examines the mass spectrometric side of coupled liquid and gas-phase systems. Troubleshooting-style articles provide readers with invaluable advice for getting the most from their mass spectrometers.
LC Troubleshooting | John Dolan: LC Troubleshooting sets about making HPLC methods easier to master. By covering the basics of liquid chromatography separations and instrumentation, John Dolan, Vice President of LC Resources and world renowned expert on HPLC, is able to highlight common problems and provide remedies for them.