Natural and synthetic phenolic compounds have been used in a wide range of applications, from antiseptics and fungicides to food additives. With the adoption of the Clean Water Act (CWA), many phenolic compounds were placed on a list of "Priority Pollutants." This list encompasses highly manufactured compounds which were found in water with a frequency of 2.5% or more (1). In addition, the entire class of compounds or specific compounds may be written into National Pollution Discharge Elimination (NPDES) permits to control release into public waterways (2).
ExperimentalThe XcelVap benchtop, heated water bath, nitrogen blow-down system (Horizon Technology) was used with 200-mL nipple tipped concentrator tubes. The following procedure was followed:
1. Set the XcelVap conditions using the parameters given in Table I and allow the bath to equilibrate.
2. Place 200 mL of dichloromethane (DCM) into each of the six 200-mL XcelVap concentrator tubes.
3. Using a spiking mix of phenolic compounds and surrogates prepared at 100 µg/mL, add 0.5 mL of the mix to each of the six concentrator tubes.
4. Start the XcelVap.
5. When complete, remove the rack from the XcelVap unit to prevent excess heat transfer to the extracts.
6. Using a pipette, transfer the concentrated extract to an auto-sampler vial, being sure to rinse the concentrator tube with DCM and bring the final volume to 1 mL.
The XcelVap Concentration System yields excellent recoveries for phenolic compounds when used in a fully automated capacity. With its large volume concentration tubes, the XcelVap System can be used with sample extracts from a wide range of extraction procedures including solid phase extraction (Method 3535), liquid-liquid extraction (Method 3510), continuous liquid-liquid extraction (Method 3520), TCLP extracts (Method 1311), pressurized fluid extraction (Method 3545), and ultrasonic extraction (Method 3550).
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