The Impact of Fast Chromatography and Its Effects on Mass Spectrometry
For many years, and after several notable failures, many researchers were convinced that it was impossible to design a quadrupole time-of-flight (qTOF) mass spectrometer that was able to retain its ability to perform the high-resolution measurements necessary for definitive molecular formula determination of unknowns. Conventional wisdom indicated that there were many reasons (for example, temperature stability, ion diffusion, and ion loss on grids of reflectrons) that would make it impossible to improve resolution of these types of instruments. Figure 1 shows a schematic of an instrument designed for high-resolution measurements with fast chromatography (Maxis UHR-TOF mass spectrometer, Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, Massachusetts). The instrument includes an ion chiller, a series of ion refocusing operations, a single reflectron, and temperature control of the overall flight tube of the instrument.