Gert Desmet | Authors

Articles

Particles, Pressure, and System Contribution: The Holy Trinity of Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography

The last decade has witnessed how liquid chromatography columns and instruments changed from long bulky columns with relatively large fully porous particles operated at modest pressures (100Ð200 bar), to short compact columns with small superficially porous particles operated at ultrahigh pressures (1200Ð1500 bar). This (r)evolution has resulted in a tremendous increase in achievable separation performance or decrease in analysis time, but requires a good knowledge of optimal chromatographic conditions for each separation problem and, concomitant, the right instrument configuration.

LC Column Technology: The State of the Art

In this extended special feature to celebrate the 30th anniversary edition of LCGC Europe, leading figures from the separation science community explore contemporary trends in separation science and identify possible future developments. We asked key opinion leaders in the field to discuss the current state of the art in liquid chromatography column technology, gas chromatography, sample preparation, and liquid chromatography instruments. They also describe the latest practical developments in supercritical fluid chromatography, 3D printing, capillary electrophoresis, data handling, comprehensive two‑dimensional liquid chromatography, and multidimensional gas chromatography.

Pressure, Particles, and System Contribution: The Holy Trinity of Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography

The last decade has witnessed how liquid chromatography columns and instruments changed from long bulky columns with relatively large fully porous particles operated at modest pressures (100–200 bar), to short compact columns with small superficially porous particles operated at ultrahigh pressures (1200–1500 bar). This (r)evolution has resulted in a tremendous increase in achievable separation performance or decrease in analysis time, but requires a good knowledge of optimal chromatographic conditions for each separation problem and, concomitant, the right instrument configuration.

Comparing the Separation Speed of Contemporary LC, SFC, and GC

Some 50 years after Giddings’s iconic comparison of the separation speed of gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC), the authors revisit this comparison using kinetic plots of the current state‑of‑the-art systems in LC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), and GC. It is found that, despite the major progress LC has made in the past decade (sub-2-µm particles, pressures up to 1500 bar, core–shell particles), a fully optimized ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation is still at least one order of magnitude slower than capillary GC. The speed limits of packed bed SFC are situated in between.