Featured LCGC Interviews

Improving Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Analysis Using the Kendrick Mass Defect

The Kendrick mass defect combined with liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–QTOF-MS) can offer a variety of benefits to analysts investigating groundwater contamination. The Column spoke to Thomas Borch from Colorado State University in Colorado, USA, about his work in this area to find out more.

Liquid Chromatography

Biopharmaceutical Candidate Screening with Automated Dynamic Light Scattering

By Daniel Some

Automated high-throughput dynamic light scattering (HT–DLS) can enable rapid and unattended assessment of sample purity in biopharmaceutical samples, maximizing the reliability and productivity of the candidate selection process. This article explains more.

Gradient HPLC—One Invaluable Equation

By Tony Taylor

Here, we concentrate on one particularly useful equation that allows us to make changes to an analytical system to improve throughput or efficiency, while retaining the selectivity of the original method.

Distorted Peaks – A Case Study

By John W. Dolan

We consider the potential causes of peak distortion for the first two peaks in the chromatogram.

Gas Chromatography

Developments in Gas Chromatography Using Ionic Liquid Stationary Phases

By Chadin Kulsing, Yada Nolvachai, Helmut M. Hügel, Philip J. Marriott

Ionic liquids (ILs) have become recognized in gas chromatography (GC) as stable and highly polar stationary phases with a wide application range. Having customizable molecular structures, ILs also offer a particular tunability that provides additional selectivity, and therefore may improve separation for neighbouring analytes. This article presents specific properties of IL phase capillary GC columns, including polarity scale and inner surface morphologies of IL columns. Application of IL phases in achiral and chiral GC, and multidimensional GC, are highlighted.

A Decade of Quantitating Cyanide in Aqueous and Blood Matrices Using Automated Cryotrapping Isotopic Dilution Static Headspace GC–MS

By Paul R. Loconto

Some insights into the principles and practice of implementing and improving on methods to quantitate cyanide at trace concentration levels in human blood.

Flame Ionization: GC's Workhorse Detector

By John V. Hinshaw

FID continues to play a crucial role for all types of gas chromatography, so it is important to understand how to use it effectively.

Mass Spectrometry

Combining Raman Imaging, Mass Spectrometry Imaging, and AFM

By LCGC Editors

Imaging techniques using vibrational spectroscopy, mass spectrometry (MS), and atomic force microscopy have all been advancing and gaining momentum in recent years. There is great potential power in these imaging techniques, particularly in the biomedical field. Thomas Bocklitz of at the Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena is working to better harness the power of these techniques by combining them.

GC–MS Analysis of Aroma Compounds in Edible Oils by Direct Thermal Desorption

By Alexander Hasselbarth, Oliver Lerch

Determining aroma compounds and off-flavours in edible oils by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS) is routine in many food-producing companies; however, the oily matrix needs to be kept out of the analytical instrument to avoid impacting analytical stability. The following article describes a simple, yet efficient, way of eliminating the matrix while determining the flavour compounds in a sensitive and selective manner.

Single-Cell MS and High-Spatial-Resolution MS Imaging Under Ambient Conditions Using a Novel Sampling Device

By Ning Pan, Wei Rao, Zhibo Yang

We have developed a miniaturized, multifunctional device, called the "Single-Probe," that is capable of probing small targets and of sampling and ionizing molecular species.

Sample Preparation Techniques

Solid-Phase Microextraction in Clinical Diagnostics

By Bethany Degg

Researchers at the University of Waterloo in Canada are collaborating with clinicians at Toronto General Hospital to develop preclinical and clinical applications of solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Bethany Degg of The Column spoke to Barbara Bojko from the team to find out more.

Advances in Sample Preparation: Removing Phospholipids from Biological Samples

By Jonathan P. Danaceau, Xin Zhang, Pamela Iraneta, Michael Young, Kimvan Tran, Kim Haynes, Erin Chambers

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has long been used for sample preparation — and is often chosen over liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) — because it can efficiently clean up and concentrate analytes of interest without the use of the more toxic organic solvents. This article describes the properties and use of a new SPE sorbent that removes phospholipids from biological samples, and illustrates the benefits of this approach with practical examples.

Aiding the Development of Extraction Procedures with Response Surface Methodology

By John Kiratu, Douglas E. Raynie

With response surface methodology, one can screen and optimize several extraction methods simultaneously. Here’s how.

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LCGC Blog

How to Estimate Error in Calibrated Instrument Methods—And Why We Have Stopped Doing It!

By Tony Taylor

Tony Taylor provides an exercise to highlight the ease with which instrument error in our data can be estimated when using methods involving linear regression. He also discusses the importance, under certain circumstances, of our clients (internal or external) and us being aware of the true precision of our data.

The LCGC Blog: The Environmental Effects of Unconventional Drilling: Why We Need a Comprehensive Study

By Kevin A. Schug

We recently published a study of water quality from 550 water wells in the Barnett Shale of North Texas. Using a suite of analytical techniques, we were able to find new evidence of the potential impact of unconventional natural gas extraction on environmental quality.

Latest News

Event Review: ISCC and 12th GC×GC Symposium

The 39th International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography (ISCC) and the 12th GC×GC Symposium held in Fort Worth in Texas, USA, were rousing successes with nearly double the participation of the previous U.S. meetings

Refining the Art of Arteriovenous Profiling of Blood

Researchers revisit arteriovenous profiling — comparing changes in the metabolome of arterial versus venous blood in the diagnosis of disease — using targeted and untargeted LC–MS methods.

GC–MS Analysis of Laser‑Degraded Blue Tattoo Ink

Laser irradiation of blue tattoo ink can create toxic byproducts — including hydrogen cyanide (HCN) — according to new research published by scientists at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment.

New FDA Guidance on Analytical Methods Provides General Approach, but Few Details

The new US FDA guidance document, Analytical Procedures and Method Validation for Drugs and Biologics, is very general in nature. Anyone hoping for specific recommendations on topics such as which methods to use will be disappointed. Industry experts, however, say that it really isn’t feasible for the FDA to provide detailed recommendations about analytical methods for biopharmaceuticals.

New MS-Based Method “Fingerprints” Air to Diagnose Infection

A team of chemists and microbiologists from the University of Leicester has developed a new method of rapidly diagnosing the infection Clostridium difficile (C. difficile).

LCGC eBooks

Advancing Biopharma Analysis with Light-Scattering Detection

To characterize biopharmaceuticals, particularly monoclonal antibodies and antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs), you need a complete toolbox of powerful tools. You are probably familiar with LC–MS methods. But have you seen what light-scattering detection can do?

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CHROMacademy

Fundamentals of GC–MS Ionisation Techniques

Understanding how an instrument works is great, but when do you have time to read a textbook, or go to a course? Let CHROMacademy help. Dip in and out of concise modules and take 5 minutes to learn a little about the fundamentals of your analytical technique. Why not delve into GC-MS ionisation techniques right now?

Helium to Hydrogen — A Change Would Do You Good

Change is always a scary concept but let us dispel some of the fear associated with changing your helium carrier gas to hydrogen by answering some of the most common questions posed to us.

Reversed-Phase HPLC for the Analysis of Biomolecules

The following article from LCGC's ChromAcademy introduces the fundamentals of biopharmaceutical analysis and cover the use of reversed-phase HPLC in the analysis of biomolecules.

HPLC Troubleshooting Guide to Cycling Baselines and Pressure Fluctuations

HPLC troubleshooting guide to cycling baselines and pressure fluctuations from LCGC's ChromAcademy.

My LC–MS isn’t behaving! Where do I start?

Instrument manufacturers try to convince us that mass spec is just another detector. Most of us who work with LC-MS know that’s simply not the case – they can be maintenance intensive, unforgiving and generate complex information. When they’re not working it can be difficult to work out exactly where the problem lies. Here’s some advice to point you in the right direction