Nanosorbents Revolutionize Antibiotic Quantification: Advances in Solid-Phase Extraction Techniques

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Scientists have made considerable progress in developing solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques for detecting and quantifying antibiotics in different environmental matrices, according to a new review published in Journal of Chromatography A (1). The study, which provides a conceptual overview of recent advancements in SPE, discusses various factors affecting extraction, including methodology, parameters, and instrumental and operational advancements. It also provides an in-depth analysis of nanosorbent for antimicrobial analysis and tabulates the physicochemical properties of antibiotics.

Antibiotics are essential medicines used to treat bacterial infections. However, bacterial resistance to these agents has contributed significantly to rising global mortality rates. One reason for this resistance is the presence of antibiotic residues in various environmental matrices. Although antibiotics are present in diluted form, consistent exposure to these minute levels can cause bacteria to develop resistance. As a result, identifying these tiny concentrations of numerous antibiotics in various matrices is crucial to controlling their disposal.

Solid-phase extraction is a popular and customizable extraction technology that can be implemented either alone or in combination with other approaches at different stages because of the multitude of sorbent varieties and techniques. Initially, sorbents are used for extraction in their natural state. Over time, researchers have modified the basic sorbent with nanoparticles and multilayer sorbents, which have helped to achieve the desired extraction efficiencies. Among the current traditional extraction techniques such as liquid-liquid extraction, protein precipitation, and salting out techniques, solid-phase extractions (SPE) with nanosorbents are most productive because they can be automated, selective, and integrated with other extraction techniques.

The review provides a broad overview of advancements and developments in sorbents with a specific emphasis on the applications of SPE techniques used for antibiotic detection and quantification in various matrices in the last two decades. It highlights the importance of SPE for antibiotic residue analysis, which is essential to preventing the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The review also notes that while SPE is a promising technique, there are still several challenges that need to be addressed.


In conclusion, the review highlights the significant advancements made in SPE techniques and emphasizes the importance of detecting antibiotic residues in different matrices to control their disposal and prevent the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The review also highlights the challenges that need to be addressed and future directions for SPE research.


(1) Suseela, M. N. L.; Viswanadh, M. K.; Mehata, A. K.; Priya, V.; Vikas; Setia, A.; Malik, A. K.; Gokul, P.; Selvin, J.; Muthu, M. S. Advances in solid-phase extraction techniques: Role of nanosorbents for the enrichment of antibiotics for analytical quantification. J. Chromatogr. A 2023, 1695, 463937. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2023.463937