Michæl P. Balogh | Authors


Ionization Revisited

Electrospray ionization (ESI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) are now among the most commonly used techniques for creating ions, especially from small-molecule compounds in solution. They have become so familiar that now many articles only refer to them briefly. Yet each technique has dramatic predictive strength on the outcome and limits of an analysis.