Achille Cappiello | Authors


The Benefits of a Liquid-Electron Ionization Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry Interface

From its development in 2016, the liquid-electron ionization (LEI) LC–MS interface has demonstrated a high versatility, offering the identification advantages of library-searchable, electron ionization (EI) spectra from samples in a liquid phase.

Toward a Universal Detector for Small Molecule Applications: Direct-EI in LC–MS

This article describes the operating principles of the direct-electron ionization (EI) interface, which is becoming more popular in many LC–MS applications. Matrix effects and the role of direct-EI as a universal detector for small molecule analysis are also discussed in detail. The advantages and drawbacks of this approach are described and a comparison with atmospheric pressure ionization (API) interfaces is made. The potential of direct-EI is illustrated with a selection of practical applications.