Most proteins, particularly soluble and membrane-bound proteins expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum, are glycosylated. The extent and result of glycosylation varies.
Gel filtration chromatography (GFC) is a powerful analytical tool in the separation of antibodies. Traditionally, GFC columns with a dimension of 7.8 mm i.d. × 30 cm are used for analytical purposes.
Protein heterogeneity is generated by post-translational modification, decomposition, and a variety of other processes, including chemical modification, denaturation, and aggregation. Since antibodies and recombinant proteins are now widely used for therapeutic treatment, it is essential to evaluate their heterogeneity during development, stability testing, and in the quality control of the final product.
Saccharides are fundamental substances that express various bioactivities and may exist independently or form complexes with proteins or lipids.