Simultaneous Extraction and Quantitative of Morphine-Related Compounds in Plasma Using Mixed-Mode SPE and UPLC–MS–MS
Morphine is an effective pain-relieving drug that is primarily metabolized into morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). The highly potent M6G may have adverse effects, such as respiratory depression and renal failure, if accumulated in the body. As morphine abuse continues to affect modern society, an effective method must be established to analyse morphine and its structurally related compounds in biological fluid samples. In this work, a UPLC–MS-MS method was developed to separate six morphine-related compounds on a 2.1 Ã- 100 mm, 1.8 Î¼m ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column in a single run using an ACQUITY UPLC system connected to a fast-scanning triple-quadrupole MS detector (TQD). The method achieved adequate retention of these very polar compounds by reversed-phase (RP) chromatography in an 8-min total run time.