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Volume 31, Issue 1
The United States Pharmacopeia general chapter on Analytical Instrument Qualification has been updated and became effective 1 August 2017. So, what has changed?
R.D. McDowall, R.D. McDowall Ltd, Bromley, Kent, UK
The United States Pharmacopeia general chapter <1058> on Analytical Instrument Qualification has been updated and became effective 1 August 2017. So, what has changed?
In the regulated world of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) we have regulations that define what should be done, but leaves the interpretation up to the individual organization of how to implement it. However, when we focus on the regulated analytical or quality control laboratory we also have the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.), the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP), and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) to provide further information to help interpret the regulations. These tomes feature monographs for active pharmaceutical ingredients, finished products, and general chapters that provide requirements for how to apply various analytical techniques, such as chromatography or spectroscopy.
In The Beginning….
Of the major pharmacopoeias, only the USP has a general chapter on analytical instrument qualification (AIQ) (1). This came about from a 2003 conference organized by the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) called Analytical Instrument Validation. The first decision of the conference was that the name was wrong and it should be Analytical Instrument Qualification. From the conference came a white paper (2) that after review and revision became USP <1058> on AIQ, effective in 2008. This described a data quality triangle, general principles of instrument qualification, and a general risk classification of analytical apparatus, instruments, and systems. USP <1058> did not specify any operating parameters or acceptance limits; these can be found in the specific general chapters for analytical techniques.
This instalment of “Questions of Quality” aims to help you understand the changes that come with the new version and the impact that this will have on the way that you qualify instruments and validate the associated software.
Why is Instrument Qualification Important?
The simplest answer to this question is that you know that the instrument is functioning correctly and that you can trust the results it produces when used to analyze samples.
However, there is a more important reason in today’s world of data integrity: integrated instrument qualification and computer validation is an essential component of a data integrity model. The complete four-layer model can be viewed in my recent book Validation of Chromatography Data Systems (3), but the analytical portion of the model is shown in Figure 1 and is described in more detail in a “Focus on Quality” column in Spectroscopy (4).
The four layers are:
The model works from the foundations up with each layer providing input for the next. As seen from Figure 1, AIQ and CSV come after the foundation layer, illustrating that if the instrument is not qualified and any software is not validated, the two layers above (method validation and sample analysis) will not be effective and can compromise data integrity. Interestingly, AIQ and CSV is missing from many of the data integrity guidance documents, but you can see the importance in the overall data integrity framework of Figure 1.
Why a New Revision of USP <1058>?
The 2008 version of USP <1058> had several issues that I presented during a session co-organized by Paul Smith at an AAPS conference in 2010 and published in Spectroscopy (5). The three main problems with the first version were:
Problem 1: The True Role of the Supplier is Missing: The supplier is responsible for the instrument specification, detailed design, and manufacture of the instrument but this is not mentioned in <1058>. The reason is that the section on design qualification (DQ) mentions that a user can use the supplier’s specification. However, a user needs to understand the conditions under which the specification was measured and how relevant this is to a laboratory’s use of an instrument.
Problem 2: Users are Responsible for DQ: USP <1058> places great emphasis on the fact that the design qualification stage is the responsibility of the supplier: Design qualification (DQ) is most suitably performed by the instrument developer or manufacturer. This is wrong. Only a user can define their instrument needs and must do so to define their intended use of the instrument and comply with GMP regulations (§211.63) (6).
Problem 3: Poor Software Validation Guidance: The way USP <1058> describes software qualification and validation is the poorest part of this general chapter because software is pervasive throughout Group B instruments and Group C systems. The responsibility for the validation of software is stated to be the supplier and not the user.
Although the approach to handling embedded software in Group B instruments where the firmware is implicitly or indirectly validated during the instrument qualification is fine, there are omissions. Users need to be aware that both calculations and user-defined programs must be verified to comply with GMP requirements in 211.68(b) (6). Note, that qualification of firmware, which is a simple and practical approach, is now inconsistent with GAMP 5, which has dropped Category 2 (firmware).
Software for Group C systems is the weakest area of the whole of <1058>. The responsibility for software validation is placed on the supplier:
The manufacturer should perform DQ, validate this software, and provide users with a summary of validation. At the user site, holistic qualification, which involves the entire instrument and software system, is more efficient than modular validation of the software alone.
In the days of data integrity this approach is completely untenable. The FDA guidance on software validation (7), quoted by <1058>, was written for medical device software, which is not configured, unlike much of the laboratory software used today.
Revision of USP <1058>
To try and rectify some of these issues, the revision process of USP <1058> started in 2012 with the publication of a stimulus to the revision process article published in Pharmacopeial Forum and written by Chris Burgess and me (8). This proposed two items:
The feedback from this article was used by us to draft a new version of <1058> in the summer of 2013, which was circulated to a few individuals in industry and suppliers for review before submission to the USP.
Proposed drafts of the new version were published for public comment in Pharmacopeial Forum in 2015 (9) and 2016 (10), and comments were incorporated into the updated versions. The approved USP <1058> final version was published in January 2017 in the First Supplement to USP 40 (11) and became effective from 1 August 2017.
What’s Changed with USP <1058>?
First, let us look at the overall scope of changes between the old and new versions of USP <1058>. This is shown in Table 1.
Missing in Action
Omitted from the new version of <1058> are the following items:
Additions and Changes to USP <1058>
Of greater interest to readers will be the changes and additions to the new general chapter (see Table 1). I will discuss the following three areas that reflect the main changes to the general chapter:
Roles and Responsibilities
The USP <1058> update to the roles and responsibilities section makes users untimately responsible for specifying their needs, ensuring that a selected instrument meets those needs, and that data quality and integrity are maintained (11). The manufacturer section now includes suppliers, service agents, and consultants to reflect the real world of instrument qualification. One new responsibility is for the supplier or manufacturer to develop meaningful specifications for users to compare with their needs. Incumbent on both users and suppliers is the need to understand and state the conditions under which specifications are measured to ensure that laboratory requirements can be met. We will discuss this further under the 4Qs model in the next section.
Finally, there is a requirement for a technical agreement between users and suppliers for the support and maintenance of any Group B instrument and Group C system. The agreement may take the form of a contract that both parties need to understand the contents of such an agreement and the responsibilities of each.
An Updated 4Qs Model
At first sight, the new version of USP <1058> uses the same 4Qs model as the 2008 version. That is true, but there are some significant differences. Look at Figure 2. This presents the 4Qs model in the form of a V model rather that a linear flow, and was published in an earlier “Questions of Quality” column (14). However, Figure 2 has now been updated to reflect the changes in the new version of USP <1058>. Look at the green tasks to see the main changes. DQ now has two phases associated with it. The first phase is for the users to define the intended use of the instrument in a user requirements specification: users must define functional and operations specifications and intended use (11). Although the new <1058> notes that this is expected to be minimal for commercially available instruments, it does not mean slavishly copying supplier specifications-especially if you do not know how any of the parameters have been measured. The output from this process is a user requirements specification (URS) or your design document.
The second phase is the qualification of the instrument design. This means that you confirm that the selected instrument meets your design specification or intended use. If looking outside of the analytical laboratory, medical device manufacturers call this Design Verification-assuring that the user’s current requirements are in the system and any omissions are mitigated, where appropriate.
These two sections are where most laboratories get it wrong, for reasons such as “We know what we want” (therefore why bother to document it?) or “We believed the supplier’s literature”. This is where most qualifications fail because there is no specification upon which to base the testing in the OQ phase of the process as shown in Figure 2. Executing an OQ without a corresponding URS or design document is planning to fail any qualification.
Installation Qualification in the new version of USP <1058> now includes:
Operational Qualification has also been extended to include:
Software Validation Changes
The major changes to this general chapter occur in the section on software validation. This is shown diagrammatically in Figure 3. As the instrument examples have been removed in the new version of <1058> and replaced with the need to determine the group based on intended use, a formal risk assessment now needs to be performed and documented. A risk assessment, based on Figure 3, to classify instruments based on their intended use has been published by Chris Burgess and me (15), and is based on the updated classification used in the new version of USP <1058> (11). As can be seen from Figure 2, the risk assessment should be conducted at the start of the process in the DQ phase of work because the outcome of the risk assessment can influence the extent of work in the OQ phase.
Rather than classify an item as either Group B or Group C, there is now more granularity for both groups with three sub-options available in each of these two groups. This allows laboratories more flexibility in qualification and validation approach, but also fills the holes from the first version of <1058>.
Group B instruments now only require either qualification of the instrument, plus verification of any embedded calculations if used, or the specification, build, and test of any user-defined programs.
For Group C systems, the new USP <1058> divides software into three types:
As can be seen from Figure 3, these three subtypes can be mapped to GAMP software category 3, 4, and 4 plus category 5 modules. These changes now align USP <1058> closer but not identically with GAMP 5. The main difference is how firmware in Group B instruments is validated-directly with GAMP 5 or indirectly when qualifying the instrument with USP <1058>. Mapping of GAMP 5 software categories to the new USP <1058> groups has been published (16) for those readers who want more information harmonizing <1058> and GAMP approaches. We are much improved and closer in approaches but not quite there yet!
The bottom line is that software validation of Group C systems under the new USP <1058> should be the same as any GXP system following GAMP 5. One item that is not mentioned in the new <1058> is a traceability matrix. For Group B instruments, it will be selfâevident that the operating range of a single parameter will be tested in the OQ. However, this changes with Group C systems, especially as software and networking are involved, in those cases a traceability matrix will be mandatory.
This column has highlighted the main changes in the new version of USP <1058> on Analytical Instrument Qualification that became effective on 1 August 2017. It has discussed three of the main changes: roles and responsibilities, changes to the 4Qs model, and the much-improved approach to software validation for Group C systems.
In general, the USP is moving towards full life cycle processes, and it is likely that a new revision cycle will be initiated. If this occurs, a full life cycle will be the centrepiece of this revision.
I would like to thank Chris Burgess, Mark Newton, Kevin Roberson, Paul Smith, and Lorrie Schuessler for their helpful review comments in preparing this column.
“Questions of Quality” editor Bob McDowall is Director at R.D. McDowall Ltd., Bromley, Kent, UK. He is also a member of LCGC Europe’s editorial advisory board. Direct correspondence about this column to the editorâin-chief, Alasdair Matheson, at email@example.com