Dual flow chromatography (DFC) separations are performed with back and forth flow for rapid method development, design of experiments (DOE), quality-by-design (QbD), or high-throughput chromatographic purification. Although different than conventional unidirectional flow through chromatography, chromatographic principles still control the separations. Selectivity coefficients and Langmuir adsorption isotherms control the separation chemistry properties of the column and dictate the mobile phase conditions needed to achieve separation. However, the kinetic rates of diffusion and interaction of mobile phase molecules with the stationary phase, column channeling, and other column properties are not germane to the practice of DFC. Chromatographic conditions developed with DFC can be scaled to any size, including laboratory and industrial preparative columns.
A summary of the most recent advances in sample preparation, instrumentation, and data-processing techniques for MALDI-IMS