A fully automated quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and extract clean-up method is described for analysis of organophosphate pesticides in orange juice. This method uses GC–MS and LC–MS along with an industry standard robotic x,y,z-sampling system.
International regulations on maximum residue levels (MRLs) of pesticides in food cover hundreds of individual contaminants at the 10 ppb or below range. The analysis of citrus oil for pesticide contamination holds specific challenges.
Pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops and to improve efficiency of production. Consequently, governments, food producers and food retailers have a duty to ensure that any residues occurring in foods for human consumption are at or below statutory maximum residue levels (MRLs). Regulation EC 396/2005 adopted in the European Union sets MRLs for more than 500 different pesticides in over 300 different food commodities.