Monolithic Stationary Phases for HPLC and Sample Preparation
Monoliths are separation media in the format that can be compared to a single large "particle" that does not contain interparticular voids. As a result, all the mobile phase must flow through the stationary phase. This convective flow greatly accelerates the rate of mass transfer. In contrast to diffusion, which is the typical driving force for mass transfer within the pores of particulate stationary phases during chromatographic processes, convective flow through the pores enables a substantial increase in the speed of the separation of large molecules such as proteins. A thorough theoretical treatment of the mass transfer within monolithic materials has been developed by Liapis (1) and Tallarek (2).