Online Solid-Phase Extraction–Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detection System for Monitoring Contaminants at Parts-Per-Trillion Concentrations in Process Waters
Online monitoring of odour and taste components that occur at parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels in industrial process waters requires specialized analytical hardware that is generally not compatible with the harsh environmental conditions in these typical industrial settings. An alternative instrumental method is proposed that uses dynamic extraction in combination with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with a simple flame ionization detector (FID) to achieve these extremely low detection limits. The extraction process was fully automated by means of online solid-phase extraction (SPE). The combination of online SPE and GC–FID was used to monitor the quality of process water contaminated with 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin, which are two notorious odour and taste components, in volumes up to 1 L.