The Application Notebook-06-01-2010

In ion chromatography, the presence of a large amount of matrix ions makes quantification of the target ions difficult. Selective removal of matrix ions - matrix elimination - can be performed by treating a sample with a solid-phase extractant. Halides can be removed by precipitation with silver, which is present as a counterion in a cation-exchange resin. A subsequent treatment with a cation-trapping column removes residual dissolved silver ions.

The new 1 mm i.d. ProSwift® strong cation-exchange (SCX) column is a polymethacrylate-based monolithic column with sulfonate functionality (1).

The characterization of pharmaceutical salts is critical to the drug development process. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) salts influence the solubility, stability, and hygroscopicity of pharmaceuticals and affect the final drug formulation.

The Application Notebook

Biodiesel is generally produced by the transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat with methanol. The triglycerides present in the feed oil (vegetable oil or animal fat) are reacted with methanol in the presence of KOH as the catalyst.

Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry is a powerful method to identify target analytes in complex matrices. An example is shown of identification of pesticides in citrus oil.

Following the recent surge in popularity of flash chromatography as a rapid purification technique, two options now exist for small-to-large-scale purifications of crude samples.

The Application Notebook

June 01, 2010

LCGC is planning to publish the next issue of The Application Notebook special supplement in September. The publication will include vendor application notes that describe techniques and applications of all forms of chromatography and capillary electrophoresis that are of immediate interest to users in industry, academia, and government. If your company is interested in participating in these special supplements, contact:

Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhizae) is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and remedies containing Danshen are traditionally used to treat cardiac and vascular disorders. Danshen Dropping Pills are a compound preparation consisting of Danshen, notoginseng, borneol, and other components.

Due to the mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the determination of these analytes is an important field in environmental analytical chemistry.

Synthetic and natural materials are used in motor vehicles to provide appealing and safe vehicle interiors. The manufacturing process for these materials include volatile (VOC) and semi volatile organic compounds (SVOC), which are released into the interior of vehicles. These compounds produce that new smell, but also create fog on interior glass surfaces of the car and can cause health issues.

Collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) are complementary mass spectrometric fragmentation techniques. We have used CID and ETD in different approaches to analyze tyrosine phosphorylation using a Thermo Scientific LTQ Orbitrap XL equipped with ETD.

Ingestion of DEG-adulterated glycerin excipients in pharmaceuticals and personal care products, such as toothpaste, mouth wash, and medicinal syrups has caused systemic alcohol intoxication, acidosis, and subsequent multi-organ failure that have led to hundreds of fatalities of children and adults (1). To help prevent future adulterations, the U.S. FDA requested that the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP) revise the USP 32 NF 26 monograph to identify and quantify EG and DEG in sorbitol solutions at the maximum limit of 0.1%. The revised monograph (USP 33-NF 28) meets these criteria using GC-FID (2).

The Application Notebook

Heating is a common and essential requirement in most biopharmaceutical production methods. Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide obtained by alkaline deacetylation of naturally abundant chitin. It is known as a potentially beneficial material in many pharmaceutical applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, cell encapsulation, and medical devices.

The United States Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) released a revision to the Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs, scheduled to become effective May 1, 2010. As part of the new guidelines, multiple changes were made for the confirmation of amphetamine-class urine analysis.

Odor causing compounds can find their way into drinking water from a number of sources. One of the most common compounds causing a "musty" or "earthy" smell is geosmin, which is released when microbes such as blue-green algae and actinobacteria die.

The Application Notebook

The resolution of time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometers continues to improve and attributes of the instrument that once were considered inconsequential have risen in importance as the push to higher and higher resolution continues.

Glycosylation is one of the most common forms of post-translational modification of eukaryotic proteins. Glycosylated proteins (glycoproteins) make up the majority of human proteins.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one chemical group that has been linked to increase ozone levels. When present in indoor spaces at high enough levels they can produce sick building syndrome symptoms in people.

The Application Notebook

Lactose, a major disaccharide found in milk products, is catabolized into glucose and galactose by the enzyme lactase. Lactose-intolerant individuals have a lactase deficiency; therefore lactose is not completely catabolized.

The release of certain chemicals from building products is of increasing concern due to their potential detrimental effect on human health and the environment; therefore, new regulations requiring the production of low emission materials are currently being implemented.

The Application Notebook

Eosin Y is an important tracer in groundwater studies for determining water migration paths and identifying the distribution of environmental pollutants.

When one is assessing the structure and function of a protein there are numerous analytical tests that are performed to fully characterize a protein of interest.

The amaZon series is the next step in Bruker Daltonics' family of ion trap mass spectrometers. Incorporating a number of new innovations to Bruker's highly successful ion trap technology platforms, the amaZon series is a true leap forward in performance and reliability.

Polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and Pirkle-type CSPs are often successful in achieving a majority of analytical and preparative chiral separations.

This QuEChERS procedure is specifically adapted to cereal grain matrices such as corn, oats, rice, and wheat using UPLC-MS-MS and automated direct sample introduction GC-TOFMS to achieve good recoveries of 176 analytes.

Fused silica capillary tubing is increasingly finding use in wave guiding applications. This application note discusses wave guiding optics in light guiding capillary.

The Application Notebook

Robust hardware and automated software are critical to method ASTM D7169. The Shimadzu GC-2010, equipped with an advanced flow controller, has proven to be reproducible and effective, and Shimadzu distillation GC software has achieved automation by integrating calibration, integration, calculation, and report functions.

The Application Notebook

Porous ODS columns are the most popular reversed-phase columns used in today's laboratories.

The Application Notebook

LEAP has developed a new instrument for collecting the entire mobile phase stream during metabolic profiling HPLC–MS analyses into a sealed, 96-well, LTuma plate.

Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) is a very effective sample clean-up technique, key to an accurate and sensitive analysis of pesticide, PCBs, mycotoxin, PAHs, and other similar compounds.