The Application Notebook-07-01-2009

The Application Notebook

Flavanones are a type of flavonoids occurring widely in plants, either in the aglycone backbone form itself or as glycosides. Flavonones exist in unique forms depending on the type of fruit and can be used to indicate the type of fruit that is being analysed. The following application introduces examples of high-speed analysis of flavanones in citrus juice using the Shimadzu ultra fast LC system, prominence UFLC, and the photodiode array detector SPD-M20A, focusing on narirutin, naringin, neohesperidin and hesperitin.

The Application Notebook

This article describes the use of combined ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC–MS) and ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (IC-ICP–MS) to analyse potentially harmful compounds.

The Application Notebook

The FDA has no objection to Rebaudioside A having a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status as a sweetener for food and drink.1 Stevia sweeteners may contain other steviol glycosides as well, mainly Stevioside, Rebaudioside C and Dulcoside A. Because the FDA GRAS confirmation is only for the use of Rebaudioside A at 95% purity or above in food and beverages, stevia extracts must be highly purified and characterized prior to use.

The Application Notebook

The use of EVOLUTE CX mixed-mode columns provides high and consistent recoveries across a range of complex matrices, from biological fluids to milk products. The dual retention mechanism ensures that matrix components such as proteins, salts and phospholipids are removed, resulting in lower ion suppression and accurate analysis.

Zhe Yin, Kenneth J. Fountain, Erin E. Chambers and Diane M. Diehl, Waters Corporation, Milford, Massachusetts, USA.

Based on the QuEChERS AOAC Official Method 2007.01, 16 pesticides were used for evaluating the performance of the Agilent's AOAC buffered extraction and SampliQ QuEChERS dispersive SPE kits for general fruits and vegetables.

The Application Notebook

Tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA) are a group of carcinogens found only in tobacco products and are formed from nicotine and related alkaloids during the production and processing of tobacco and tobacco products.

The separation of structurally diverse analytes is often complicated by chance coelutions with other analytes or with matrix related compounds. Often the column is blamed, but while such coelutions make analysis difficult they do not necessarily indicate a faulty column, poor chromatography or method design.

The Application Notebook

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are carcinogenic condensed ring aromatic compounds widely found as trace pollutants in waters, wastes, air particulates, soil and foods. PAHs can be routinely monitored using HPLC with a combination of UV and fluorescence detection as prescribed in EPA methods 550.1, 610 and 8310.

The Application Notebook

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are particularly relevant in the analysis of environmental pollution because of their ubiquity, toxicity and persistence. Consequently, the PAHs have become the most intensively studied pollutants in environmental analysis.

Salt formation is a critical aspect in drug development and HPLC is an important tool for determination of pharmaceutical counterions.

The Application Notebook

Under the registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) Regulations (EG) no. 1907/2006 the producer, manufacturer or importer of chemical substances/formulations have to register their products (more than 1 ton/year) at the chemical agency.