Characterizing Monoclonal Antibodies and Antibody–Drug Conjugates Using 2D-LC–MS
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has in recent years seen an enormous evolution, and with the introduction of commercial instrumentation, the technique is no longer considered a specialist tool. One of the fields where 2D-LC is being widely adopted is in the analysis of biopharmaceuticals, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs). These molecules come with a structural complexity that drives state-of-the-art chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) to its limits. Using practical examples from the authors’ laboratory complemented with background literature, the possibilities of on-line 2D-LC for the characterization of mAbs and ADCs are presented and discussed.