This article explores potential pitfalls associated with 1D‑LC and how 2D‑LC can overcome these obstacles.
Online 2D-LC is a powerful—and accessible—tool for analyzing pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical samples, in both R&D and QC. It’s now easier than ever to develop 2D-LC methods, and they can be run in a fully automated manner.
Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) was used for detailed profiling of various nonionic ethoxylated surfactants applied in pharmaceutical formulations. Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) were used as the first and second dimensions, respectively. Detection was performed with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD) for general profiling and with single-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) for structure elucidation of individual peaks and for class-type confirmation of peak-groups.
Comprehensive 2D-LC using HILIC and reversed-phase LC is a robust tool to characterize nonionic ethoxylated surfactants in pharmaceutical formulations.
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has in recent years seen an enormous evolution, and with the introduction of commercial instrumentation, the technique is no longer considered a specialist tool. One of the fields where 2D-LC is being widely adopted is in the analysis of biopharmaceuticals, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs). These molecules come with a structural complexity that drives state-of-the-art chromatography and mass spectrometry (MS) to its limits. Using practical examples from the authors’ laboratory complemented with background literature, the possibilities of on-line 2D-LC for the characterization of mAbs and ADCs are presented and discussed.
On-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) embracing mainly comprehensive LC (LC×LC) and multiple heart-cutting LC (mLC–LC) offers new opportunities for in-depth characterization of pharmaceuticals. Reversed-phase LC × reversed-phase LC using different column chemistries and mobile phases provides good orthogonality for a wide range of applications related to small molecule drugs. Moreover, hardware configurations and software are now commercially available to perform LC×LC and mLC–LC measurements in a reproducible manner.